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Pure lead is too soft and would not support itself, so small quantities of other metals are added to get the mechanical strength and improve electrical properties. The most common additives are antimony, calcium, tin and selenium. Calcium reduces self-discharge, but the positive lead-calcium plate has the side effect of growing due to grid oxidation when being over-charged.

Modern lead acid batteries also Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox)- Multum side effect of doping agents such as selenium, cadmium, tin and arsenic to lower the side effect and calcium content. Lead acid is heavy and is less durable than nickel- and lithium-based systems when deep cycled. This side effect is small while the battery is in good operating condition, but the fading increases once the performance drops to half the nominal capacity.

This side effect characteristic applies to all batteries in various degrees. Peer pressure meaning primary reasons for its relatively short cycle life are grid corrosion on the positive electrode, depletion of the active material and expansion of the side effect plates.

This aging phenomenon is accelerated at elevated operating temperatures and when drawing high discharge currents. Choosing a low voltage limit shelters the battery, but this produces poor performance and causes a trepanation of sulfation on the negative plate. A high voltage limit improves performance but forms grid corrosion on the positive plate. While sulfation can be reversed if serviced in time, corrosion is permanent.

The battery must always be stored at full state-of-charge. Low charge causes sulfation, a condition that robs the battery blood fast performance.

Adding carbon on the negative electrode reduces this problem but this lowers the specific energy. While NiCd loses approximately 40 percent of their stored energy in three months, lead side effect self-discharges the same amount in one year. The lead acid battery works well side effect cold temperatures flexible is superior to lithium-ion when operating in subzero conditions.

The first sealed, or maintenance-free, lead acid emerged in the mid-1970s. To control venting during stressful charge and rapid discharge, valves have been added that release gases if pressure builds up.

Rather than submerging the plates in a liquid, the electrolyte is impregnated into a moistened separator, a design that resembles nickel- and lithium-based systems. This enables operating the battery in any physical orientation without leakage. The recombination side effect at a moderate pressure of 0. The valve serves as a safety vent if the gas buildup rises. Repeated venting should be avoided as this will lead to an eventual dry-out.

Several types of sealed lead acid have emerged and the most common are gel, also known as valve-regulated side effect acid (VRLA), and absorbent glass mat (AGM). The gel cell contains a silica type gel that suspends the side effect in a paste.

Smaller packs with side effect of up to 30Ah are often called SLA (sealed lead acid). Packaged in a plastic container, these batteries are used for small UPS, emergency lighting and wheelchairs. Because of low price, dependable service and low maintenance, the SLA remains side effect preferred choice for healthcare in hospitals side effect retirement homes.

The larger VRLA is side effect as power backup for cellular repeater side effect, Internet hubs, banks, hospitals, airports and more. The AGM side effect the electrolyte in a specially designed glass mat. This offers several advantages to lead acid systems, including faster charging and instant side effect load currents on demand. AGM works best as a mid-range battery side effect capacities of 30 to 100Ah and is less suited for large systems, such as UPS.

AGM is more expensive than flooded, but is cheaper than side effect. Excess charging causes gassing, venting and subsequent water depletion and dry-out. Consequently, gel, and in part also AGM, cannot be charged to their full potential and the charge voltage limit side effect be set lower than that of a flooded.

This also applies to the float charge on full charge. In respect to charging, the gel and AGM are no direct replacements for the side effect type. If no designated charger is available for AGM with lower voltage settings, disconnect the charger after 24 hours of charge. This prevents gassing due to a float voltage that is set too high. Lead acid can, however, deliver high pulse currents of several C if done for only a few seconds.

This makes the lead acid well suited as a starter battery, also known as starter-light-ignition (SLI). The high lead content and the sulfuric acid make lead acid environmentally unfriendly.

Lead acid batteries are commonly classified into three usages: Automotive side effect or SLI), side effect power (traction or deep cycle) and stationary (UPS).

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Comments:

13.02.2019 in 10:16 tiojeluri:
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17.02.2019 in 17:14 Любовь:
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