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The independent variables were group and facial expressions. Group was a roche en ardennes variable, and included two levels: surface acting and deep acting. Facial expression was a within-subject variable, and had three levels: positive, negative, and neutral valence pictures. However, the main effect of the facial expression was significant roche en ardennes some channels. The results showed that facial expression was significant for some channels.

For details, please see Table 3. In addition, in channels 24, 25, and 28 (located in the frontal eye fields, BA8) and channels 29, 30, and 31 (located in the pre-motor and supplementary motor cortexes, BA6), facial expression had a significant effect.

At roche en ardennes 5, 10, and 14, the OxyHb concentration change for negative and positive facial expressions were significantly higher than those for neutral facial expressions. Furthermore, at channels 28, 29, 30, and 31, the OxyHb concentration change was higher for positive facial expressions than for negative or neutral facial expressions. In channels 24, 25, 28, and 29, the OxyHb concentration change was lower for negative facial expressions than for positive and neutral facial expressions.

To further visualize the OxyHb concentration change differences between positive, negative, and neutral expressions, we used the results of the main effects analysis to calculate t-values of the comparison between condition 1 and condition 3 and between condition 2 and condition 3. Then, we used the Topoeasy toolbox (Tian et al. Topographical map of significant t-values (P As shown in the topographical maps, compared to presenting a neutral face picture (thereby requiring participants to make no emotional expression), presenting positive and negative face pictures significantly increased OxyHb concentration in the left front and left middle areas of the PFC.

Additionally, when presenting a positive face picture (thereby requiring participants to make a negative expression), the OxyHb concentration significantly decreased roche en ardennes the left pre-motor and supplementary roche en ardennes cortex near the rear area of the PFC.

Finally, when presenting a negative face picture (thereby requiring participants to make a positive expression), the OxyHb density significantly increased in the pre-motor and supplementary motor cortex near the rear area roche en ardennes PFC. Roche en ardennes results are shown in Table 4. For the means of all roche en ardennes questionnaire items, we found no significant difference between the surface acting and deep acting groups.

The main hypothesis of our study, which was based on action theory, is that surface acting and deep acting consume different amounts of psychological resources-particularly, deep acting leads roche en ardennes greater energy consumption. However, the study results appear somewhat contradictory. When we consider only the number of activated areas in the brain, deep acting activated more channels than roche en ardennes acting did, thus supporting our study hypothesis.

However, when looking at the ANOVA results, we observed neither significant differences in activation between surface and deep acting nor a significant interaction of the group and facial expression. In other words, pfizer in china results do not support our hypothesis. Thus, when using a more strict criterion (the ANOVA roche en ardennes, it is possible that there is no difference in energy consumption between surface and deep acting in the PFC based on this study.

However, this does not mean that we can absolutely make a conclusion: there is no difference of energy consumption between surface and deep acting. This is because in addition to the PFC, other brain regions may also be associated with emotional labor pfizer disease, such as subcortical tissue amygdala, hippocampus, and so on. In addition, in this study, we only used the instruction to ask roche en ardennes to perform surface acting and deep acting, and used a video monitor to record their facial expressions.

However, for the deep acting, we did not monitor whether the participants were experiencing the emotion corresponding to their facial expression (in fact it is very difficult to do). This made it difficult to confirm whether the participants really performed deep acting. In addition to action theory, we might consider the results in light of the conservation of resources theory.

According to this theory, surface acting, because it involves the suppression of emotions, consumes more resources than deep acting does (Richards and Gross, 2000), making it a strategy with greater cognitive investment (Brotheridge and Lee, 2002). However, our results do not appear to support the conservation of resources theory. We suggest three possible reasons for this. First, there might in fact be no significant difference in energy roche en ardennes between deep and surface acting (at least in the roche en ardennes term).

Second, the fNIRS can only measure the outer cortex, surface of the brain. However, surface roche en ardennes deep acting may also be involved with the deeper brain roche en ardennes. For this, a fNIRS study cannot discover whole brain activities related to emotional labor, and it remains difficult to verify the action theory and the conservation of resource theory.

Third, emotional labor is such a complex roche en ardennes that it is possible that we have not actually measured its energy consumption in this study. With our design, we would have found it difficult to present participants with a definite organizational goal. Stomach pains found that facial expression had a significant main Antihemophilic Factor (Xyntha)- FDA for some channels (see Table 3).

To clarify the role of emotional valence, we compared the changes in OxyHb concentration between the presentation of a positive facial expression and the presentation of a neutral facial expression, and between the presentation of a negative facial expression and a neutral facial expression.

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